ghatroads - South India Travel and Tourism Guide

The Royal City Hampi - Vijayanagaram

Hampi is world famous for its architecture, history and heritage. How much you read the history of Hampi will be lesser to explore Hampi. Hampi has an epical history as the capital. It is our humble effort to bring you the greatness of Hampi in precise.

Hampi History

Hampi is the capital city of Vijayanagara Empire. It was founded by two brothers Harihara and Bukkaraya under the guidance of their Guru Vidyaranya.

Hampi-Vijayanagaram Images

Where is Hampi

Hampi is located in Hospet Taluk, Ballari district of Karnataka state, India - 583239.

How to Reach

  • Nearest Town:Hospet - 13km
  • Distance: Bangalore -341km, Panjim - 366km, Kurnool - 240km, Ballari - 65km
  • Airport: Ballari, Bangalore
  • Bus Station: Hampi
  • Railway Station: Hospet
  • Transport: Hampi is well connected by road, railways. State and private buses run daily from Bengaluru and other towns.

Where to Stay

There are many hotels from budget to luxury available at Hampi town.

Where to Eat

There are lots of places in Hampi Bazaar where you get satisfying and inexpensive food. Plenty of restaurants available for continental varieties.

Places To Visit in around Hampi

Locally known as Yeduru Basavanna or Nandi, this monolithic bull marks the east end of the Virupaksha Bazaar. The statue is housed in a twin storied pavilion built on an elevated platform. A heap of gigantic boulders behind the pavilion offers an interesting backdrop. Though partially mutilated and carved in a coarse style, this Nandi attracts visitor owing to its giant size..

The giant monolithic Ganesha statue is locally called Sasivekalu(mustard seed)Ganesha. This is located on the southern foothill of the Hemakuta Hill.

The temple of virupaksha or pampapati on the banks of river Tungabhadra is tuteliary diety of Vijayanagara rulers is the most sacred living monuments of Hampi. The temple earlier was modest and with the patronage of various dynasties from 7th century AD., it grew in to its present proportions due to the patronage of devaraya ii (1422-46 AD) and krishnadevaraya (1509-1528 AD) of sangama and tuluva lineage of vijayanagara dynasty. the temple has a sanctum, vestibule, pillered hall with porches at north and south, a large sabha mantapa also known as ranga mantapa, pillered cloister all around and numerous subsidiary shrines of which the shrines of Mukti Narasimha, Pataleswara, Saptamatrika, Suryanarayana, Tarakeswara, Saraswati, Vidyaranya, Parvati and Bhuvaneswari. The last two exhibit later chalukyan features (12th century AD). Vidyaranya’s image belongs to 20th century.

The temple in its enclosure also has a kitchen, hall of marriage (kalyana mantapa), and paviloin for processional deities. Tall elegant entrance towers at north, south and east are known for their stucco sculptures. the eastren gateway caused by proluganti tippa during the time of devaraya ii (1422-46 ad) and the enrance tower of the second enclosure and ranga mantapa was caused by krishnadevaraya in (1510 ad) to commemorate his crowing. The temple at north also has a towered gateway with a sacred Manmata Honda (tank).

However the most outstanding is ceiling paintings of vijayanagara in the ranga mantapa. The noteworthy paintings are of the procession of sage vidyranya, dikpalakas and the ten incornations of Vishnu. Girija kalyana, Arjuna at matsya yantra and shiva as tripurari.

It is a Vishnu temple facing south with a bazar in front flanked by colonnades. This temple, datable to sixteenth century A.D., has on plan a garbhagriha, an antarala, a pradakshinapatha enclosing the garbhagriha and antarala, a sabhamantapa with two side porches of which the western one is converted into a cell. An ornate mahamantapa with composite pil1ars has a raised roof over the central aisle. The ceiling of the ardhamantapa has an elaborately carved lotus and other panels. The temple has a high adhishtana comprising of seven ornate mouldings The temple is surrounded by a high prakara wall with an ornate gopura to the south. There is a pillared pavilion along the inner side of the prakara wall. There are panels depicting the story of Ramayana on the gopura.

It is to the south-east of the Vitthala temple and is said to be a structure meant for the Tulapurusha-dana, i.e. weighting the king against precious gems and metals during auspicious occasion like a coronation. It consists of two lofty carved granite pillars supporting a stone beam provided with three loop-holes on the underside (one in the middle and the other two on either end) and three miniature sikharas on the upper side. On either side of this are two kuta sikharas. The two pillars, each erected on a pitha are carved with kumbha-pilasters. The pitha of the east pillar has a bas-relief depicting a king and two queens standing in anjalimudra.

The Vitthala temple represents the highest achievement of the Vijayanagara style of art and architecture. Though the core of the temple was in existence from the times of Devaraya II (A.D. 1422-46) a substantial portion of the present structure was added under the patronage of Krishnadeva Raya (A.D. 1509-1529). This temple remained under worship till AD. 1565. The temple is built with a spacious courtyard within a walled enclosure with three massive gateways adorned by lofty gopuras in the north, east and south. In the courtyard are located the main shrine, devi shrine, kalyanamantapa, utsavamantapa, a hundred pillared mantapa and a stone ratha.

The main temple, facing east, dedicated to Vitthala, a form of Vishnu, consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala with covered pradakshinapatha, a closed sabhamantapa and an open pillared mahamantapa of cruciform plan. The walls of the shrine and sabhamantapa have ornamental pilasters and deep niches alternately. The superstructure above the shrine is of brick forming a tritala Dravida vimana. The composite pillars of the mahamantapa have rearing animals and clusters of slender pillars, each hewn out of a single granite block. The kalyanamantapa is as ornate as the mahamantapa with an elevated moulded dias located at the centre of the mantapa to perform the marriage ceremony of the god and goddess.

The stone chariot in front of the mahamantapa, provided with a brick superstructure is a reproduction of a processional chariot in wood, with wheels realistically fitted as it could revolve around the axis. This structure is actually a shrine of Garuda. This complex had towards east a bazar with paved broad road flanked by pillared mantapa on either side and there is a rectangular tank towards the eastern end known as Lokapavani with a string of pillared pavillions around.

This is located near the south gopura of the Vitthala complex. It is identified by some scholars as ‘Rama Vitthala’ temple and is datable to the sixteenth century A.D. This temple, facing north, has on plan, a garbhagriha, an antarala, and a sabhamantapa with two porches on the east and west and the main entrance in the north. The main entrance and the western porch have flight of steps with elephant balustrades. The ceiling of the central bay of the sabhamantapa has all elaborately carved lotus. The exterior wall of the temple is adorned with devakoshthas, kumbha pilasters and a few bas-reliefs.

This rectangular tank is situated immediately west of the northern end of the Achyutapete (Soolai Bazaar). The tank has flights of steps on all sides leading to the water and a four-pillared mantapa at the centre. It is surrounded on all sides by pillared pavilions, which have collapsed leaving intact a small portion, The slabs forming the stepped sides of the tank are in disturbed condition due to sinking of its foundation.

This temple, located on the Malyavanta hill, has a prakara with a large five¬storeyed gopura on the south, and a small three-storeyed gopura on the east. The gopuras lead to the open-courtyard containing the Swami and Amman sanctum a Vijayanagara style kalyanamantapa at the south-west corner and other mantapas. The main sanctum faces east and has usual side porches and garbhagriha and antarala enclosed by a covered prakara with plain exterior walls. The Swami sanctum is a tritala vimana with a circular sikhara.

The garbhagriha and antarala walls are attached to the large natural boulder on which are carved seated images with kneeling Hanuman and standing Lakshmana, all cut almost in the round. The image of kama has the right hand on the chest with fingers turned inwards. The Amman shrine to the left of the main sanctum is a tritala vimana with sala-sikhara oriented north-south. The ardhamantapa of the Amman shrine has a two-storeyed subshrine facing south and roofed by a sala-sikhara oriented east-west.

This is an elaborately decorated mantapa situated about 1 km east of the Vitthala complex. Raised on a moulded adhishthana, it has nine bays of which the central one is occupied by raised platform. The ceiling of this platform is ornate having miniature sikhara with deities, miniature niches with devotees and an elaborately carved lotus. On the west side there is a porch having a flight of three steps with Yali-balustrades. There is a brick superstructure of two tiers over the ceiling of the central bay. The brick parapet over the roof has many niches with remains of stucco figures.

This temple, located to the north-west of the Vitthala Temple has large inscriptions on its walls stating that the temple of Tirumangai Alvar was built by Avubilaraju In A.D. 1554. The temple facing east, has on plan a garbhagriha, an antarala and sabhamantapa with two side porches in north and south, with a doorway on the east and two small entrances in the west wall (for the sake of pradakshina around antarala and garbhagriha). The ceiling of the sabhmantapa has an elaborately carved lotus. The pillars are of ornate cubical Vijayanagara type with usual bas-reliefs. The temple has a moulded adhisthana. It has a ruined prakara wall, and a ruined mantapa attached to the interior of the prakara at its south-eastern comer.

This gateway through the fortification is located on the way to Talarighatta from Kamalapuram. It is mentioned as ‘Aresankara bhavi bagilu’ in an inscription. It has a north-south passage way flanked by a seven-pillared mantapa (pavilion) on each side. To the north is a small enclosure. The northern facade of the gateway which is two-storied and plastered is Islamic in style. The lower storey consists of three arched recesses in rectangular frames. The arches are in two planes and have foliage medallions in the spandrels and similar designs at the apex. The central arch is completely pierced as a large opening; on either side the arches are partly filled to create smaller arched openings.

The wall is terminated by a frieze of alternating angled and curved elements. The upper storey repeats this basic scheme at a slightly reduced scale. The central arched opening is flanked by two tiers of smaller arched recesses; the upper recesses (missing on the right) are pierced as small windows. The larger arched openings at the side have now mostly collapsed. The wall is terminated by a stepped base. The colonnade flanking the passage way is raised on a moulded basement. The pillars are provided with bases and the shafts and are crudely cut. Angled support a small upper chamber roofed with horizontal slabs.

This temple was built in the reign of Achyuta Raya (A.D. 1530-42) enshrining the deity called Tiruvengalanatha, according to an inscription. The temple complex faces north. It has two prakaras. The outer one has lofty gopura on the north, while the inner one has three gopuras, on the east, west and north. Pillared corridors run along the interior of both prakara walls.

The large kalyanamantapa to the west of the two north gopuras are much dilapidated. The inner courtyard contains the sanctum of the god and goddess. Attached to the god’s sanctum are an antarala, sabhamantapa and a large and ornate mahamantapa in the typical Vijayanagara style. There is also the characteristic covered pradakshina patha around the garbhagriha and antarala. The superstructure of the sanctum is much dilapidated and the upper portions are not extant. The Amman shrine, to the south-west of the god’s sanctum has a garbhagriha, antarala and a pillared sabhamantapa having the charactertstic feature of a subsidiary shrine facing east.

Inscriptionally known as Prasanna Virupaksha, this is a large Siva temple to the west of Dannayaka’s Enclosure. It faces east and is much below the present ground level. This temple, datable to 14th century A.D. on stylistical grounds, was enlarged with many mantapas in the 15th and 16th centuries. It has on plan a sandhara garbhagriha, an antarala, a sabhamantapa with two subshrines in south and north and a closed mantapa preceded by a monolithic lamp pillar. The temple is roofed by a Kadamba-nagara sikhara akin to the ones on subshrines.

To the north of the mahamantapa are a pillared hall and a colonnade while to its south are a shrine and a colonnade with a gateway. and to the east of the mahamantapa are altars and a gateway. To the north-west of the main shrine is another structure having on plan a garbhagriha and an antarala. A small subshrine is located towards south-west. The structure has a mahadvara in the east. There is an ornate kalyanamantapa outside the enclosure to the south. This mantapa has an inscription on a slab which records a grant to the Prasanna Virupaksha by Krishnadeva Raya in A.D. 1513 on the occasion of his coronation.

Located 150 m. south-west of the Mahanavami Dibba (throne platform), the stone aqueduct in the Royal enclosure is a testimony of the hydraulic system developed by the Vijayanagara architects. This stone aqueduct located near a well, has a system of overhead and subterranean water¬channels criss-crossing all over the Royal Enclosure area, feeding water into a large number of rectangular, square and ‘T’ shaped tanks at different levels with proper gradients near the structures within and beyond the Enclosure.

The stone aqueducts are made of huge granite blocks measuring well over 5m in length and a height of 35 cm and a width of 55cm. However, the inner side of the cut channel has a width of 30 cm and a depth of 20 cm. At present, much of the disturbed stone aqueduct system measured (before restoration) nearly 37.73 m in east-west orientation with an arm of 7 m towards south. The recent excavations have exposed the eastern arm of the above aqueduct to a total length of 98.70m which takes a right-angle turn over an enclosure wall to a distance of 80.90m before emptying itself into the public bath. Located in closed proximity is a subterranean shrine probably of Venugopala (a mutilated image has been found in the vicinity). Built of green chlorite slabs, this is a rectangular shrine currently open to the sky exposing its shrine proper with green chlorite schist pillars and pilasters. The shrine is sandhara with a common exit towards north.

Outside the enclosure wall to the north of Mahanavami Dibba, there are two huge monolithic door leaves (measuring 3.5m x 0.97 m x 0.20 m thick with cylindrical hinges measuring 0.37m x 0.35 x 0.26 – 0.28 in diameter) in imitation of the wooden door in all details, including even the bolt sockets.

Large Slone Trough: This is one of the finest specimens of a Water-trough hewn out of a single huge rectangular granite block which measures 12.72m x o.70m and is located towards the southern entrance to the Hazara Ramachandra temple complex. This trough has a depth of O.55 m. It served as water trough for the horses and elephants evidenced by a horse stable found immediately to the north-east of the above said entrance. This trough forms one of the well developed water systems of utilitarian value by the Vijayanagara masons.

The large bath in the south-east part of the Royal Enclosure, is parallel to the southern wall of the enclosure to its north. On its north-east side there is a feeder channel, a branch of the main stone acqueduct, running and emptying itself into the tank by a pranala. It is the only inlet of the tank. The tank is rectangular (67m x 22m) with flights of steps on the west and east. It was constructed from a mixture of dressed rubble masonry and plaster-lined brickwork. A plastered platform runs around the tank-and probably supported a covered colomnade. The tank is provided with an outlet in its south side. There is a mantapa on the west of the tank at an elevated plane. Traces of pavilion, projected into the tank may be visualised by lion-based pillars.

This magnificent edifice identified as Mahanavami Dibba or Dussera Dibba was constructed by Krishnadeva Raya on return from victorious campaign against Gajapatis of Orissa in A.D. 1513. This platform is also known as the House of Victory or Throne Platform as referred by the Portuguese traveller Domingo Paeas, who visited the kingdom at its zenith under Krishnadevaraya. This structure was the hub of cultural activities and ceremonies conducted during the Dasahara festivals, a vivid description of which is given by the contemporary travellers. This pyramidal structure built of granite stone blocks, in three tiers had a superstructure of perishable material rising to a height of seven storeys. The platform is accessible through flights of steps provided on three sides. The recent excavation has revealed that this structure has constructed in three phases. The recent work at the top of platform has laid bare plan of a large central bay with colonnades (indicated by pillar bases) and with many pillared chambers.

Located to the north-west of Royal Enclosure his imposing rectangular basement raises in three tiers with the northern end opening into the street with a guarded enclosure. The southern end of the platform has a flight of steps from a palace complex leading to the first storey from the inner quarters of the royal enclosure. At east a guarded flight of steps leads to the hundred pillared hall and the western end of this hall has a gallery for noblemen and women with a flight of steps at north. This structure was known as Bhuvanavijaya in contemporary literature.

The Hazara Rama temple is also called “the temple of thousand Ramas” due to large number of panels depicting Ramayana scenes on the walls of the temple as well as the inner face of the north prakara. It is in close proximity to the royal palace. According to inscriptions the temple was in existence in a modest form from the time of one of the Devarayas, probably Deva Devaraya I (A.D. 1406-22) and later on extensive additions were made. It was primarily built for exclusive use of the royal family as is evident from its location as well as from the southern entrance with protected passage which directly leads to the royal enclosure. This modest complex is enclosed by a decorated high prakara wall having gateways on the east and north besides a private entrance in the south.

The main east facing shrine dedicated to Ramachandra, has on plan a garbhagriha, sukanasi, sabhamantapa and an open pillared mukhamantapa in front evidently a later addition. There are two ornate side entrances to the sabhamantapa having four carved and polished black stone pillars. Over the garbhagriha is a brick built tritala Dravida vimana with a suksnasa. Also located within this enclosure are a separate Devi shrine and an ornate kalyana mantapa built on the orders of Rimmaraja in A.D. 1521 during the rule of Krishnadeva Raya. Exterior wall surface of the temple and the prakara wall have delicately carved bas-¬reliefs depicting various themes. Of utmost interest is an organised presentation of the entire story of Rarnayana in 108 panels in three rows on the walls of the sabhamantapa. Rows of elephants in various moods, horses, infantry, dancing girls in traditional dance poses and scenes from Krishna-lila decorate the exterior surface of the prakara wall in the east, north and west.

Facing south the Guard Quarters is represented by a long rectangular structure, built at right angles to the northern end of the Elephant’s Stable, abutting the Zanana Enclosure. The facade has a high verandah in front with a flight of steps at the centre. This verandah faces a high walled central courtyard surrounded by a closed cloistered corridor.

The Elephant’s Stable is a fairly well preserved majestic structure facing west immediately outside the Zanana enclosure to its north-east. Aligned in north-south orientation, this structure has eleven large chambers with lofty domed roofs. The central chamber has a square turret above with two flights of steps leading to the dome. Large and wide four-centred arched doorways with arched niches mark the facade. Different types of domes, round, octagonal and vaulted are arranged symmetrically on either side of the central dome.

Datable to circa sixteenth century A.D., this is a dvikutachala example of Vijayanagara style of architecture. The temple enclosed by a veneered wall is provided with a gopura. The temple has two garbhagrihas preceded by antaralas which open into respective ardhamantapas which in turn open into a common rangamantapa. The rangamantapa in the south has a flight of steps leading to the courtyard and• leads to an open pillared mukhamantapa. In elevation, the typical high double adhishthana continues with the wall treated with niches and kumbha pilasters. The Saiva dvarapalas decorate the doorway leading into the shrines. The east facing shrine has Dravida vimana with circular stupi whereas the south facing Devi shrine has sala-sikhara.

Datable to circa sixteenth century, the Bhojanasala is located to the east of the octagonal pavilion outside the Royal Enclosure in the south. It is unique in its composition and execution. It is set with dishes on either side of 65cm deep and 75 cm wide water channel laid to a distance of nearly 10m. The dishes of banana leaf pattern in schist stone has circular depressions to hold different dishes served. It appears that such a system was meant for mass feeding on occasions during the rule of Vijayanagara dynasty.

The structure is located nearly 40 m south of the northern watch-tower in an elevated plane of the Zanana Enclosure and nearly 15 m north of the water-pavilion. The huge basement is typical in plan like other platforms, especially noticed at Ranga Mahal Complex and the Palace of Vira Harihara Raya. Built in east-west orientation this three-tiered structure has two indented square units bound together. In front of the third terrace is a pillared verandah which was preceded by series of compartments with a central chamber in its southern half.

A series of structures with moulded basements are located in an area identified as Dannayaka’s Enclosure with high-rise cyclopean walls, behind the temple of Hazara Rama. It is a large and ornate basement of a palace (36.50m x 19.40 m), facing north, placed in the southwest quarter of Dannayaka’s enclosure. It was raised in three tiers of adhishthana mouldings. There are remnants of pillar sockets and pillar bases at the corner and angles on the second tier indicating the presence of colonnade. The second tier has remnants of yali balustrade and steps on its north. The third tier is also provided with a flight of two steps. The floors of these tiers are laid in lime concrete. The third tier had a room in the centre and three rooms at its cardinal directions.

Datable to circa sixteenth century A.D., this structure falls between the so-called mosque and the north-facing palace-base towards the south-western corner of Dannayaka’s enclosure and is commonly called Band Tower. This two-storeyed octagonal structure served as a watch-tower. It is in the nature of an ornate pavilion open on all sides. The first storey has square piers supporting ornate four-centred arches and a straight sloping cornice supported by corbels. The second storey has ornate balconies with alternate square and arched openings, Access to the second storey is provided through a staircase. The exterior of the structure preserves much of its original plaster decoralion. A circular dome with ribbed extrados rises above this structure.

The temple is located due south-east of the colossal Narasimha statue, on the east side of the road. This temple, facing north, is built in a crude style and has a garbhagriha, antarala and an open ardhamantapa. The brick parapet of the superstructure has mutilated stucco figures including a large group with crawling Krishna. Originally, the temple was a Vaishnava shrine.

Referred to as Kalideva in inscriptions, the Kallesvara temple, dated to eleventh century A.D. is assignable to the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. The temple consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala, a sabhamantapa and two mukhamantapas in the east and south. The extant portion of the adhishthana has the mouldings of upana and padma. The indented walls have double pilastered turrets flanked by tall slender pilasters reaching upto the eves. At the adhishthana level architectural members decorated with dentils support projecting eaves. In the region at mukhamantapa S-shaped massive eaves are provided.

The garbhagriha walls have niches projecting prominently with sloping eaves and turret above. The front sides of the niches have flying Gandharvas supporting bracket figures. The garbhagriha houses a small Siva-linga on a pitha. The garbhagriha doorways are elaborately carved with five sakhas. At the base of each sakha are beautiful female figures with dvarapalas. On the lintel is a band of hanging festoons and the lalata has a figure of Gajalakshmi. The antarala doorway is simple with purnakumbha based pilaster. The sabhamantapa has four pillars with a moulded base. The figures on the lower block of the pillars include Madhava, Padmanabha, Hrishikesa, Kesava, Manmatha, etc.

Datable to circa sixteenth century, the Ganesa temple, facing east, is located on the eastern slopes of the Hemakuta hill. On plan, it has a garbhagriha, an antarala and an open pillared mantapa. The garbhagriha houses a huge seated Ganesa sculpture, measuring about 4.5 m high and is ironically named as the Kadalekalu Ganesa. The image bears tusk, parasu, pasa and modaka-patre in the hands and wears a karanda-mukuta. The pedestal over which the image is placed appears like the unsplit gram.

The entrance door is flanked by Saiva dvarapalas. In elevation, the garbhagriha and antarala have very austere mouldings of adhishthana and a plain bhitti. The twenty four tall, slender pillars of the indented mantapa are of the ornate Vijayanagara type.

As many as thirty structures of varying size occupy different portions of the Hemakuta hill within a cyclopean fortification, pierced with pillared storeryed entrances from east and north. The earliest structures built of sandstone are datable to ninth-tenth century A.D. and reveal Rashtrakuta features resembling one of the shrines beyond the northern gopura of the Virupaksha temple. It has a garbhagriha preceded by ardhamantapa. The wall is austere and relieved with pilasters. The superstructure decorated with sala and kuta rising in two levels show typical Dravida features. The other pre-Vijayanagara temples in the complex consist of Ekakuta shrines towards west, east and south. On plan, these have a garbhagriha, an antarala and a navaranga.

The sukanasa projection in some of them indicate Hoysala influence. The superstructures are of dvitala order end carry square sikhara and kalasa. Some of the shrines do not exhibit superstructure. One of the shrines with stepped superstructure could be identified with Prasanna Virupaksha (A.D. 1398) referred to in an inscription inscribed on a nearby boulder. Facing north are two large temples belonging to the trikutachala order. Those built on raised platform, consist on plan of three garbhagrihas preceded by an antarala, each hall terminating in four – pillared navaranga which in turn is preceded by a pillared porch having kakshasana, interestingly, a sukanasi projects from all three superstructures. Small shrines, pillared halls and remains of unidentified structures form other structural activities within this large complex.

The temple of Kalleswara was constructed during the middle of eleventh century A.D. when the region was under the rule of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. On plan, it consists of three garbhagrihas, each with an antarala and a common sabhamantapa. On the exterior, the adhishthana has only a jagati and a padma. The wall is plain. The superstructure over the western shrine is of the Kadamba-nagara order having a sukanasa projection. However, other shrines are devoid of superstructure.

Interestingly, the prakara running all over the temple is carved with sculptures of Siva, Bhairava, Ekadasa Rudras, Ganesa, Narasimha, Brahma, dancers, musicians, hamsas and makaras. The sabhamantapa doorway is carved with seven sakhas, decorated with lozenges, creeper scrolls and flowers. The sabhamantapa has four pillars adorned with sculptures of Ganesa, Daksha, Saptamatrikas, Mahishamardini, Rati and Manmatha, etc.

An inscription set-up in the sabhamantapa of this temple records that the temple was constructed in A.D. 1083 in the reign of Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. The temple, facing east, consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala, sabhamantapa and mukhamantapa. The temple is known for the well executed adhishthana. The indented wall has niches carrying sculptured Vesara turrets.

The mukhamantapa in the south has kakshasana. In the interior the doorways of garbhagriha and antarala are intricately carved with various motifs, the lalata has a fine sculpture of Gajalakshmi. The square bases of pillars are decorated with reliefs depicting Surya, Bhairava, Durga, etc.

An inscription, dated A.D. 1524, on the walls of the temple states that Krishnadeva Raya founded the town of Sale Tirumala Maharayapura (evidently the present village of Anantasayanagudi) in memory of his deceased son and that he built here a temple for the God Anantapadmanabha, granted number of villages for its upkeep and appointed priests of the Vaikhanasa sect for the conduct of worship. From other epigraphs it may be inferred that the temple continued in worship at least till A.D. 1549 in the time of Sadasiva Raya.

On plan, the temple consists of a rectangular garbhagriha, a sabhamantapa and a mahamantapa. The main vimana is about 24 m high. The garbhagriha consists of a plainly moulded adhishthana over which rise the bare walls. The superstructure over sikhara has projecting panjaras-and salas on the sides. There are no stupis. The vaulted dome alone measures 10 m high which speaks much about the constructional skill of the Vijayanagara craftsmen. The sanctum chamber has three entrances. The rectangular antarala leads to an open seven-aisled mahamantapa built in the typical Vijayanagara style with composite pillars. The Amman shrine to the west, is a dvitala vimana with a square domical sikhara. The shrine chamber contained a large black stone image of a four-armed seated Devi which is now shifted to the museum at Kamlapuram. The antarala here leads to a sabhamantapa while the front mahamantapa has preserved only in its ornate base.

This temple of Siva in the typical Vijayanagara style of architecture was founded by Namassivaya, an officer of Bayakara Ramappa, provincial Governor of Achyuta Raya of Vijayanagara in A.D. 1539. The temple has a dvara gopura in the north with a high adhishthana. The brick superstructure rises in three tiers. The third tier has a sala-sikhara. Each tier has stucco figures. On plan this trikuta structure has three garbhagrihas in the west, north and south, all of which open into a common pillared sabhamandpa through an ardhamantapa. The sabhamantapa opens into a pillared mukhamantapa. All sanctums have a dvitala brick-and-stucco Dravida vimana. The finials are missing.

Situated on the bank of river Tungabhadra, this temple is assignable to the middle of eleventh century A.D. in the reign of Chalukyas of Kalyana. The temple facing north has two garbhagrihas, each with an antarala connected to a common navaranga and a mukhamnadapa. The walls are plain on the exterior. The temple is known for the sculpture of six-armed ferocious Narasimha, Surya, Ganesa and dvarapalas kept in the garbhagriha and antarala.

The superstructure over the sanctum is built in brick-and-Iime rising in octagonal configuration of five tiers in the typical Maratha style, in receding order. Except the first tier which is plain, the remaining five tiers have arches. Only one arch has a stucco image. A short neck is succeeded by ribbed finial. An austere pillared hall is located in the west of the temple which is further divided into two chambers. A Vijayanagara period mahadvara with a flight of steps towards north leads one to the river Tungabhadra.

Two minor Asokan Rock Edicts have been found at the foot of a hill range engraved on a dressed boulder of gneiss, locally known as ‘Sukradappana gudde’. The contents of the edicts are similar to those found at Maski and Brahmagiri in Kamataka. Edict No.1 at Nittur is of seven lines whereas Edict No.2 is of five lines. They mention the name of king Asoka besides his usual title “Devanam Priya”, Edict No.1 mentions the name at the end whereas edict No.2 mentions the name of the king at the beginning, Both edicts are in the Brahmi script of third century B.C. and in Prakrit language.

It is a large stepped well, known as Soolai Bhavi, which is mentioned as Malige/Kuparama (meaning well-cum-rest house) in an inscription. It is a stone built two-storeyed well of the Vijayanagara period dated A.D. 1405. A flight of steps leads down to the water. It is in the shape of an octagon with wide four-centred arches, arched squinches at the corners and a few bas¬reliefs. This well is square on plan at the bottom.

Constructed in A.D. 1209 in the reign of Hoysala king Ballala II by Sameyada Garuda Marmmarasa of Magala, the Suryanarayana Temple is trikutachala on plan housing the gods Somanatha, Prasanna Kesava and Surya. The architect of the temple is mentioned as Bammoja. Each garbhagriha has an antarala and all shrines are connected to a common sabhamantapa preceded by a mukhamantapa facing south. In the interior the doorways of the garbhagrihas and antaralas are carved with five sakhas and below the sakhas are dvarapalas.

The sabhamantapa snd the mukhamantapa are joined together forming a large hall consisting of ten pillars. The walls have niches in the sabhamnadapa containing images. The garbhagriha on the east accommodates a beautiful sculpture of Surya of the Hoysala period which is a rare specimen. The ceilings of the temple are exquisitely carved and varied. They depict kirtimukhas issuing scrolls,’ filled with lotus and flying gandharvas, dikpalas, flowers and composite mythical animals.

The Parvati Temple was built in early Chalukyan style between A.D. 650 and A.D. 750, in pale brown sandstone. The temple, facing east, consists of a garbhagriha, an ardhamantapa and a mukhamantapa having niches. Tall pillars carry the simple ceiling. The temple consists of a chatustala superstructure which was later renovated to appear as a stepped sikhara. The large sized mahanasika has a frontal projection equal to the width of the garbhagriha. A large door-frame of multiple sakhas with dvarapalas is interesting. On either side of the main entrance appear dikpalas in separate niches while the main offsets of the outer wall show carvings of divinities like Siva, Karthikeya, Vishnu etc.

To the north of the Parvati shrine is the late Chalukyan temple datable to the late eleventh century A.D. dedicated to Karttikeya. Axially, it comprises a garbhagriha, an anatarala, a navaranga and two-pillared porches. The superstructure over the garbhagriha is replaced by a dwarf eighteenth century sikhara devoid of any architectural merit. To the north-east at a lower level, a small shrine dedicated to Siva is built. In the vicinity are a few interesting sculptures stylistically datable to the sixth-twelfth centuries A.D. The entire complex is enclosed by a prakara with entrance from the east. The dvara-gopura of brick and lime is of late medieval period. Outside the entrance towards north-east, is a kalyani and a few other insignificant structures.

The monolithic Narasimha statue, about 6.7 m high, stands within a walled enclosure, near the Krishna temple. It is a carefully carved and well-finished colossal icon. It is a four-armed seated figure, but all the arms are now broken. There is a large seven-hooded naga above the head. Originally, there was a figure of Lakshmi seated on the left thigh of the god. The deity is seated below a makara-torana springing from two ornate pilasters. The image was one of the last contributions of Krishnadeva Raya to Vijayanagara, an inscription states that Krishanadeva Raya made a grant in A.D. 1528 to the temple of Lakshmi Narasimha which he had built and that the deity was made out of a single granite boulder by a Brahmin named Krishnabhatta.

Accommodated within a square chambered Siva temple is an enormous monolithic linga (about 3 m high) with part of its base permanently under running water. The exterior wall built in stone is austere and the brick superstructure is damaged at the top.

The Krishna temple has an inscription of Krishnadeva Raya, dated A.D. 1513, recording that an image of Bala Krishna which he had brought from a temple in Udayagiri was enshrined in a mantapa in this temple. This large and ornate east-facing temple complex is built in the typical Vijayanagara style.

A large open prakara with high walls contain Swami and Amman sanctums and many sub-shrines. The main sanctum group contains the usual typical arrangement of an open mahamantapa, a sabhamantapa and a covered pradakshinapatha running round the garbhagriha and antarala. One of the pillars in the ardhamantapa is noteworthy, as all ten avataras of Vishnu including the rare form of Kalki are carved on it. Kalki is depicted as a seated figure with a horse’s head. The garbhagriha and antarala have an ornate and well-finished exterior with fine bas¬reliefs. The sanctum is a three-storeyed vimana with a circular sikhara much dilapidated. The Amman shrine is to the north-west of the Swami sanctum and has salasikharas. The Krishna temple is interesting for the numerous sub-shrines it contains. One of these in the south has many stucco figures of Subrahmanya seated on peacock. The presence of a Subrahmanya shrine in a Krishna temple is rather unique.

The three gopuras of the temple to the east, south and north, are much dilapidated. Between the two prakaras towards the south is a huge dome roofed granary built on a slopy rock bed. It is a huge hall, rectangular on plan and has six bays. Externally austere, it has a staircase heading to the roof, comprising of six domes, all forming an opening in the centre probably used for filling the granary. At a short distance from the main entrance towards the east along the outer prakara a series of flights of steps lead to the huge 500 m long car street (Krishna Bazaar) flanked by rows of mantapas. Behind the northern row of bazaar mantapas at a distance of 200 m from the temple is the usual tank, Lokapavani, surrounded by a colonnade with entrance from the west. The interior veneered with a flight of steps accommodates a four-pillared pavilion at the centre used for keeping the Utsava-murti, having brick and lime superstructure.

The Water-tower is a small rectangular stone structure to the west of the Chandrashekhara temple and east of Queen’s bath. It is an austere structure resembling a chamber, 6.75 m long. 3.75 m wide and about 4 m high, with plastered lime concrete floor and terracotta pipe (25 cm in diameter) at its south-west corner.

Built in east-west orientation, this is a small but elegant shrine datable to circa fifteenth century A.D. The temple on plan has a garbhagriha with a rectangular pedestal, an ardhamantapa and a large eighteen-pillared open porch. The affinity of the temple Vaishnava faith is evidenced by the chaturbhuja Vaishnava dvarapalas at the entrance. The plinth of the temple at sanctum and mantapa has conventional mouldings of a pada, kantha, tripatta-kumuda, pattika, kumuda and a pattika.

The superstructure of the sanctum is typical dvitala Dravida vimana. The oblong griva is relieved by pilaster motifs surmounted by panjara units and the sikhara(stupa) is oblong and the finial is mutilated. Right inside the pillared mantapa is a colossal statue of Hanuman in alidha posture facing or moving towards north. There is no uniformity of size, design of the pillars of the front mantapa indicative of its later addition. However, the most intresting is the highly ornate typical vijaynagara Devi shrine with Gajalakshmi in the lintel. A ruined open pillared mantapa in front has many friezes pertaining to Krishna-lila.

It is a rectangular structure, facing east, and is located at the north-west corner of the Zanana enclosure, probably it was a storehouse or a magazine or a gymnasium. This rectangular building has a plain exterior with a doorway in the middle of the eastern side. Small ventilation holes are placed high up in the walls which are overhung by a deep, double curved eave.

The stone rafters supporting the eave are decorated with cobra hoods. The best preserved portions of parapet consist of interlaced pointed arches on diagonal squares. The vaulted roof is hipped, with angled faces on four sides and has on its upper part a long north-south ridge which is raised up and decorated with petal motifs. The interior of the hall consists of large central rectangular space with a pillared corridor on all four sides.

There are two temples to the east of Pattabhirama temple. The first one is a Vaishnava temple, datable to circa sixteenth century A.D. according to the inscription on the wall of its dvaragopura. It had an enclosure wall on all four sides. The west wall of the enclosure has collapsed. There are two small entrances in the middle of the east and south walls and a gateway having tritala Dravida vimana with sala-sikhara in the middle of the north wall. The main shrine, facing east, has on plan a garbhagriha.

An antarala and a ardhamantapa with two porches on the north and south, the main entrance on the east. To the northwest of the main shrine is a goddess shrine which has on plan a garbhagriha, an anatarala and an open pillared mukhamantapa. Over the garbhagria of this shrine is an ekatala Dravida vimana with sala-sikhara. Only a portion of the first tala of the Dravida vimana remains. The second temple, which is mentioned in the inscription on its wall is the Raghunatha temple at Penugonda Bagilu. It faces north and has on plan a garbhagriha, an antarala and a closed mukhamantapa. It is enclosed by prakara walls on the east, south and west. Over the garbhagriha is a brick-built dvitala Darvida vimana. To the east of this temple is a small shrine housing a mutilated Ganesa sculpture on a pedestal. Over the garbhagriha is a ruined ekatala Dravida vimana.